Power transmission and distribution (T&D) systems are required to connect and transfer the electrical power from the power generators to consumers. Electricity generated in the power stations are relatively under low voltage and is not appropriate for transmission of energy over long distances therefore step-up transformers are used in generation stations in order to increase the voltage and reduce the current and transfer the electricity to remote substations (Grigsby 2007). These in turn feed the distribution subsystems and these subsystems distribute the energy between loads (Schavemaker and Sluis 2008). Underground cables and overhead lines are the primary systems for transmitting and distributing electricity from every T&D node to the next (Grigsby 2007; El-Sharkawi 2009).
In a report called ‘Impacts of Transmission and Distribution Projects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Review of Methodologies and a Proposed Approach in the Context of World Bank Lending Operations’ the Energy and Mining Sector Board of the World Bank (2010) has established a detail presentation of the environmental impacts of the T&D systems. According to this report the negative environmental impacts of the T&D system, comparing with the power generation process, is minimal. At the same time the report explains that improvement in the network efficiency of the power T&D systems can save considerable amount of power generation from non-environmentally friendly sources. Another consideration is the fact that the power generated by all grid-connected renewable generation facilities need to get connected to T&D networks in order to be serviced to the consumers. These facts complement the practicality of new energy systems making Power T&D an indicative tool for promotion of our products and solutions.
Huge potential for integration into distributed generations and microgirds plus providing ‘Low-cost access to renewable energy’. (Gonen 2009)
Uneven distributed source of renewable energy – potential threats and destruction of ecosystem (Battaglini and Batjer in Bessede 2014) – performance and reliability.
Quality service that is environmentally acceptable, secure, and reliable, and entails minimum cost is the main objective in power grid system operations. (Keyhani 2017)
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